Extension Education Notes for ICDS Supervisor Exam|ICDS Supervisor Kerala PSC

Extension Education Notes for ICDS Supervisor Exam|ICDS Supervisor Kerala PSC

Extension Education Notes for ICDS Supervisor Exam

In this post, Extension Education is  explained which were important for ICDS Supervisor Exam. Kerala PSC and other states PSC’s are conducting Exams for ICDS Supervisor. Study materials are available for other topics also like Home ScienceFood and NutritionPsychologyPhysiologyMicrobiologySociology and Nutrition and Health for ICDS Supervisor Kerala PSC Exam

At the end, notes links are given on all topics

Extension Education


Education is the process of giving training and instruction to people to develop their knowledge, abilities, skills, character and mental powers. 

ü Knowledge: It includes facts, concepts, principles and relationship

 ü Attitude: An attitude can be loosely defined as a feeling towards some object, person, and situation or idea.

 ü Skills: Ability to do things. 

  1. Informal education: Lifelong educational process from daily experiences and exposure to the environment. 

 2. Formal education: Highly institutionalized, uniform, chronologically graded, hierarchically structured. 

 3. Nonformal education: Provide selected types of learning to particular subgroups of the population according to their needs. 

 — “Extension is a programme and a process of helping village people to help themselves, increase their production and to raise their general standard of living.” -D. Ensminger 1967.

 — “Extension Education is a science which deals with the creation, transmission and application of knowledge designed to bring about planned changes in the behavior-complex of people, with a view to help them live better by learning the ways of improving their vocations, enterprises and institutions”. Reddy A. Adivi 1993. 


Education is the production of desirable changes in human behavior.

 ü Change in knowledge. 

ü Change in skills (Mental and physical). 

§ Mental skills: Application of knowledge in solving the problems of life. 

§ Physical skills: Ability of a person to do any work physically. 

ü Change in attitude. 


The concept developed by Dr. J. Paul Leagans. 

Education starts with the study of the present situation and identification of problems. Based on the problems identified, solutions are found out and objectives are formulated. In the third phase, a plan of work is taught on how to attain the objectives, and then the entire process is evaluated and in the final stage reconsideration about the unattained objectives and unaddressed problems is done. 




Type of soils, crops, nature of irrigation, etc. 


1. Wild boars 

2. Heliothes in cotton 

3. Electricity problem 

4. Lack of good market price for produce

 5. Low yields in paddy due to water shortage This requires a large amount of facts 


§General Objective: To improve paddy yields by the adoption of SRI 

§Specific objectives: 

1. To improve farmers’ knowledge of SRI by organizing training programs. 

2. To develop skills among farmers in SRI by conducting demonstrations. 


 This involves choosing 

(1) The content or what is to be taught 

 (2) Methods and techniques of communication. 


This step consists of a review of previous efforts and results which reveal a new situation. 

This process is continuous. 

This determines to what extent objectives have been reached. 

This will also be a test of how accurately and clearly the objectives have been stated.. 


q Objectives are expressions of the ends towards which our efforts are directed.

 q The fundamental objective of extension is the development of the people. General objectives or functions of Extension are 

ü To assist people to discover and analyze their problems their felt and unfelt needs. 

 ü To develop leadership among people. 

üTo disseminate information. 

ü To keep the research workers informed. 

üThe major objectives of Extension may also be categorized as follows. 

(i) Material – increase production, income. 

(ii) Educational – change the outlook of people or develop individuals. 

(iii) Social and cultural – development of the community. 


q According to Mildred Horton, 1952 the four great principles underlying extension services are:

 1. The individual is supreme in a democracy. 

2. The home is a fundamental unit in a civilization. 

3. The family is the first training group of the human race. 

4. The foundation of any permanent civilization must rest on the partnership of man and the land. 


1) Principle of interests and needs: To be effective, extension work must begin with the interest and needs of the people. Only can the extension agency mold the needs and interests of the people into realistic needs.

 2) Grass Root principle : To be effective and real, it has to be a synthesis of democracy obtained at the level of the family and more particularly at the village level. 

. 3) Principle of cultural differences: Cultural differences exist between Extension workers and farmers. To be effective the approach and procedure must be suited to the culture of the people who are taught. 

4) Principle of cooperation and participation: The participation of the people is of fundamental importance for the success of any educational Endeavor.

 5) Principle of learning by doing: Learning by doing involves use of a maximum number of senses, hence it is very effective in changing behavior. 

 6) Adaptability principle in the use of extension teaching methods. 

The use of teaching methods must have the flexibility to be adopted to the members of a community who differ in age, education, economic status, sex and proneness to change, etc. 

7) Principle of leadership: The involvement of leaders in extension programs is the one single factor that determines the success or failure of those programs. 

 8) Whole family principle: The family is the unit of any society. Creates mutual understanding, aids in money management, balances farm, and family needs, educates the younger members, assures family service to the community and society.

 9) Principle of satisfaction: Unless the people are satisfied with the end product of any program, it is not going to be able to run. 


üExtension lays emphasis on “How to teach” instead of on “What to teach” so that the people can be encouraged to adopt new research techniques easily. 

üThe discipline of extension education is to generate knowledge. 

ü It also has to take into account the various problems emerging at the social level due to the implementation of developmental programs.

üExtension Education is primarily for rural development. 

üIts main objective is to bring necessary changes in the beliefs or views of people. 

üIt is utilized to make scientific methods available to the rural people so that they can raise their agricultural production and their standard of living. 

üIn India, the aim of extension education is community development. 

üExtension education plays major role in bringing desirable change in rural people. 

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