Malayali Memorial and Ezhava Memorial Behind Story & Questions Kerala PSC Exams

Malayali Memorial and Ezhava Memorial for Kerala PSC Exams

Hi, In this post I will discuss the Malayali Memorial and Ezhava Memorial which are important for Kerala PSC Exams.

Malayali Memorial Ezhava Memorial
Malayali Memorial Ezhava Memorial

Malayali Memorial and Ezhava Memorial

Towards the closing decades, of the 19th century the educated middle class in Travancore asserted itself. A series of constitutional agitations followed.

There was widespread resentment among the educated classes against the Government’s policy of importing persons from outside, particularly Tamil Brahmins, to hold the most important posts in the public services even when persons with similar qualifications were available inside the State.

It may be noted that the influx of Tamil Brahmins into Travancore civil service started from the days of Ramayan Dalawa and it continued right through the 19th century.

മലയാളി മെമ്മോറിയൽ & ഈഴവ മെമ്മോറിയൽ

You can refer in detail from the book A Survey of Kerala History by, A Sreedhara Menon

English version HERE and Malayalam Version “Kerala Charitram” HERE കേരള ചരിത്രം

The Story Behind Malayali Memorial

In 1882 three students of the Maharaja’s College, Trivandrum, were expelled from the college on suspicion that they had contributed articles to newspapers protesting against the policy of the State Government in appointing non-Travancoreans to the State service.

They were G. Parameswaran Pillai (Barrister G.P. Pillai of later days), R. Ranga Rao (son of Diwan Peishkar R. Ranganatha Rao) and N. Raman Pillai (son of former Diwan Nanu Pillai).

The order of expulsion of these students was issued by the Diwan Rama lyengar with the special sanction of the ruler in disregard of the objection raised by the College Principal John Ross, an Englishman.

Considering the role of G. Parameswaran Pillai in this episode he has come to be called ‘the father of political movement’ in modern Travancore.

The resentment of the people against the policy of appointing outsiders to Travancore service found concrete expression in the ‘Malayali Memorial’ submitted to the Maharaja on January 1, 1891.

The petition which was signed by 10,028 persons belonging to all castes and creeds drew the attention of the Maharaja to the exclusion of the educated natives from the higher grades of
the public service and pleaded that rules be enacted to provide them with a fair quota of Government appointments.

The great patriot G.P. Pillai was the brain behind the whole move. 

The story behind Ezhava Memorial 

The ‘Malayali Memorial’ agitation served its purpose in rousing the political consciousness of the people and paved the way for the submission to the Maharaja on September 3, 1896, of the ‘Ezhava Memorial signed by 13,176 members of the Ezhava community under the leadership of Dr. Palpu.

It may be mentioned in this connection that Ezhavas and other backward communities were then being denied the right of admission to Government schools or entry into public services. Dr. Palpu himself had to seek employment in Mysore service after being denied entry as a Doctor in the
Travancore Medical Department.

The Ezhava Memorial requested the Maharaja to confer on the Ezhavas the same rights and privileges which were being enjoyed by those of their caste who had become converts to Christianity.

The response of the Travancore Government to the Ezhava Memorial was
negative. This disappointed the memorialists.

The Second Ezhava Memorial

A second ‘Ezhava Memorial’ was therefore presented by the leaders of the Ezhava community to Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, during his visit to Trivandrum in 1900.

It drew the attention of the Viceroy to the manifold grievances of the Ezhava community and sought early redress.

The Viceroy took the stand that the Paramount power could not interefere in such ‘minor
details of administration’.

Thus the second Ezhava Memorial also failed, to produce any positive result. Nevertheless, the Ezhava Memorial agitation helped to rouse the social and political consciousness of the Ezhavas and prepare them for future struggles in the cause of social justice.

1. Malayali Memorial in short

Malayali Memorial was a mass petition submitted to Travancore Maharaja on 1st January 1891.

It was submitted to the Maharaja of Travancore

10028 persons from different classes signed the Malayali memorial.

It was submitted to consider educated people from communities other than Namboothiris.

G.P. Pillai, K.P. Sankara Menon, and Dr. Palpu were the main leaders.

But there was no immediate action from the Government.


(1)Who was the first signatory of the Malayali Memorial in 1891?

 Answer:   K.P. Sankara Menon

(2)Who was the second signatory of the Malayali Memorial in 1891?

   Answer:  G P Pillai

(3)Who was the third signatory of the Malayali Memorial in 1891?

Answer: Dr Palpu

2. Ezhava Memorial in short

It was also submitted to the Travancore Maharaja to consider educated Ezhavas for Government jobs.

It was submitted on 3rd September 1896.

It was signed by 13176 members

It pleaded for among other things, the extension of civil rights and government jobs to members of the lower castes and the Ezhavas in particular.

It also pleaded for the opening of public schools to the Ezhavas.

The response of the government was not in favor of the people.

Thus a second memorial was presented to the viceroy Curzon in 1900. But it also failed


(1)Ezhava Memorial was submitted to
Answer: Sree Moolam Thirunal

(2)The leader of Ezhava Memorial
Answer: Dr.Palpu

(3)The leader of the Second Ezhava Memorial
Answer: Dr.Palpu

(4)Second Ezhava Memorial was submitted in
Answer: 1900

For Malayalam notes on Malayali Memorial click HERE

Malayalam Notes on G P Pillai click HERE

Ezhava Memorial was submitted to whom?

Sree Moolam Thirunal

Who was the leader of Ezhava Memorial

Dr Palpu

Second Ezhava Memorial was submitted in


Who was the first signatory of the Malayali Memorial in 1891?

K.P. Sankara Menon

Who was the second signatory of the Malayali Memorial in 1891?

What is Malayali Memorial ?

Malayali Memorial was a mass petition submitted to Travancore Maharaja on 1st January 1891.

1 thought on “Malayali Memorial and Ezhava Memorial Behind Story & Questions Kerala PSC Exams”

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

error: Content is protected !!